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Bieler, R. (2021). Isaac Lea's (1792-1886) substitutions and other modifications of his own names of molluscan species. Malacologia. 64(1): 1-56.
405143
Bieler, R.
2021
Isaac Lea's (1792-1886) substitutions and other modifications of his own names of molluscan species.
Malacologia
64(1): 1-56
Publication
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
The American conchologist Isaac Lea had a long and productive career during which he introduced more than 1,800 names of molluscan species between 1827 and 1874, the majority North American land and freshwater species. His idiosyncratic way of publishing, by describing new taxa multiple times in duplicated and variously modified journal papers as well as in retitled collections of extracts, has led to considerable difficulties in determining accurate dates of his original descriptions. He considered the reading and presentation of a manuscript before a "learned society" as the date of its original publication and therefore his own recorded dates must be approached with caution. The problem of interpreting Lea’s names was compounded by the fact that Lea frequently modified his own new taxonomic names in his subsequent publications, and often without providing justification for the change. The various name versions were inconsistently applied by subsequent authors. The current paper analyses Lea’s substitutions and other modifications of his own names of molluscan species and discusses 131 of his publications in this context, for which attempts at precise dating were made. The status of these "replacements" of Lea’s taxonomic names were evaluated under the current ICZN Code (1999). A few additional cases of changes of Lea’s names by other authors are included; these are instances in which Lea had missed a primary homonym or a secondary homonym was discovered later. While some of the names here discussed are currently resting in synonymy, others are of greater current relevance as they are in use as valid names for taxa of conservation/management concern, including IUCN and U.S.-federally listed species. The following 98 discussions of often-complex name changes involve 348 species-group names and their subsequent spellings, 231 of which were introduced by Lea. Based on their current taxonomic status, the names belong to 4 bivalve and 11 gastropod families, with the vast majority concentrated in Unionidae and Pleuroceridae. Under the current ICZN Code, the investigated changes fall into many different categories, which impacts their nomenclatural availability: 35 names changed by Lea (plus 6 by other authors) are interpreted as substitute names for junior primary homonyms, 7 of which were unnecessary; 1 name (plus 6 by others) as substitute names for junior secondary homonyms, 1 of which was unnecessary; 13 names as justified emendations; 10 names (plus 1 by another) as unjustified emendations that have not entered prevailing usage; 1 name determined by his first reviser action; 37 names (plus many by others) as incorrect subsequent spellings that are not in prevailing usage; and 1 incorrect subsequent spelling that is shown to be in prevailing usage and thus considered a correct original spelling. The concept of "prevailing usage," ill-defined under the current (1999) ICZN Code, is addressed in this context. The following names in current use are corrected as follows: Helix balasteriana I. Lea, 1840 (taxon inquirendum, ?Dyakiidae), Lioplax cyclostomatiformis (I. Lea, 1844), Diplodon demararaensis (I. Lea, 1859), Iheringella isocardiodes I. Lea, 1856, Dilatata brongniartiana (I. Lea, 1843), Elliptio nasutidus (I. Lea, 1863), Elliptio pullata (I. Lea, 1857), Pleurocera picta (I. Lea, 1841) [instead of P. curta (Haldeman, 1841), which is preoccupied] and Beringiana youconensis (I. Lea, 1847); many others are confirmed in their recently applied spellings. This work serves as an example that the basic endeavor of summarizing available and valid names from the published literature is not always a straightforward task.
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2021-04-23 21:36:45Z
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2021-08-05 18:44:36Z
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Anodonta benedictii I. Lea, 1867 accepted as Symphynota benedictensis I. Lea, 1834 accepted as Pyganodon grandis (Say, 1829) (status source)
Anodonta couperiana I. Lea, 1840 accepted as Utterbackiana couperiana (I. Lea, 1840) (status source)
Anodonta cowperiana I. Lea, 1840 accepted as Anodonta couperiana I. Lea, 1840 accepted as Utterbackiana couperiana (I. Lea, 1840) (status source)
Anodonta dolearis I. Lea, 1863 accepted as Pyganodon cataracta (Say, 1817) (status source)
Anodonta doliaris "I. Lea, 1863" accepted as Anodonta dolearis I. Lea, 1863 accepted as Pyganodon cataracta (Say, 1817) (status source)
Anodonta henryana "I. Lea, 1860" accepted as Anodonta henryiana I. Lea, 1857 accepted as Utterbackia imbecillis (Say, 1829) (status source)
Anodonta henryiana I. Lea, 1857 accepted as Utterbackia imbecillis (Say, 1829) (status source)
Anodonta jewettiana I. Lea, 1868 accepted as Anodontites trapesialis (Lamarck, 1819) (status source)
Anodonta jewettii "I. Lea, 1868" accepted as Anodonta jewettiana I. Lea, 1868 accepted as Anodontites trapesialis (Lamarck, 1819) (status source)
Anodonta linnaeana I. Lea, 1867 accepted as Anodonta linnaena I. Lea, 1852 accepted as Pyganodon grandis (Say, 1829) (status source)
Anodonta linnaena I. Lea, 1852 accepted as Pyganodon grandis (Say, 1829) (status source)
Anodonta marryatana I. Lea, 1840 accepted as Pyganodon grandis (Say, 1829) (status source)
Anodonta maryattana "I. Lea, 1842" accepted as Pyganodon grandis (Say, 1829) (status source)
Anodonta maryattiana I. Lea, 1840 accepted as Anodonta maryattana "I. Lea, 1842" accepted as Pyganodon grandis (Say, 1829) (status source)
Anodonta shaefferiana I. Lea, 1852 accepted as Strophitus undulatus (Say, 1817) (status source)
Anodonta shafferiana I. Lea, 1867 accepted as Anodonta shaefferiana I. Lea, 1852 accepted as Strophitus undulatus (Say, 1817) (status source)
Anodonta youconensis I. Lea, 1867 accepted as Anodonta beringiana Middendorff, 1851 accepted as Beringiana beringiana (Middendorff, 1851) (status source)
Anodonta youkanensis "I. Lea, 1868" accepted as Anodonta youconensis I. Lea, 1867 accepted as Anodonta beringiana Middendorff, 1851 accepted as Beringiana beringiana (Middendorff, 1851) (status source)
Bulimus virginieus "I. Lea, 1841" accepted as Cochlostyla bullula (Broderip, 1841) (status source)
Cincinnatia binneyana Hannibal, 1912 accepted as Fontigens nickliniana (I. Lea, 1838) (status source)
Cochlostyla bullula (Broderip, 1841) (status source)
Cochlostyla virginea (I. Lea, 1840) accepted as Cochlostyla bullula (Broderip, 1841) (status source)
Dilatata brongniartiana (I. Lea, 1843) (status source)
Diplodon demararaensis (I. Lea, 1859) (status source)
Elimia hartmaniana (I. Lea, 1861) (status source)
Elimia jonesi (Goodrich, 1936) (status source)
Elimia pilsbryi (Goodrich, 1927) (status source)
Elliptio nasutidus (I. Lea, 1863) (status source)
Elliptio pullata (I. Lea, 1857) (status source)
Epioblasma lenior (I. Lea, 1842) (status source)
Galba tryonii ("I. Lea, 1865") accepted as Limnophysa tryonii Tryon, 1865 (status source)
Goniobasis binneyiana I. Lea, 1862 accepted as Elimia lecontiana decorata (J. G. Anthony, 1860) (status source)
Goniobasis canbyi I. Lea, 1864 accepted as Elimia modesta (I. Lea, 1845) (status source)
Goniobasis canbyi I. Lea, 1862 accepted as Elimia floridensis (Reeve, 1860) (status source)
Goniobasis canbyi Tryon, 1873 accepted as Elimia modesta (I. Lea, 1845) (status source)
Goniobasis cumberlandiensis I. Lea, 1863 accepted as Elimia clavaeformis (I. Lea, 1841) (status source)
Goniobasis etowahensis I. Lea, 1862 accepted as Elimia modesta (I. Lea, 1845) (status source)
Goniobasis gouldiana I. Lea, 1868 accepted as Elimia pybasii (I. Lea, 1862) (status source)
Goniobasis hartmanii I. Lea, 1863 accepted as Elimia hartmaniana (I. Lea, 1861) (status source)
Goniobasis jonesi Goodrich, 1936 accepted as Elimia jonesi (Goodrich, 1936) (status source)
Goniobasis lawrencii I. Lea, 1869 accepted as Pleurocera acuta Rafinesque, 1824 (status source)
Goniobasis leai Tryon, 1873 accepted as Elimia laeta (Jay, 1839) (status source)
Goniobasis lithasiodes I. Lea, 1863 accepted as Elimia livescens (Menke, 1830) (status source)
Goniobasis lithasioides "I. Lea, 1866" accepted as Elimia livescens (Menke, 1830) (status source)
Goniobasis ohiensis I. Lea, 1862 accepted as Elimia semicarinata (Say, 1829) (status source)
Goniobasis prestoniana I. Lea, 1864 accepted as Elimia simplex (Say, 1825) (status source)
Goniobasis pulchella I. Lea, 1868 accepted as Elimia pybasii (I. Lea, 1862) (status source)
Goniobasis tenebrosa I. Lea, 1868 accepted as Elimia lecontiana luteocella (I. Lea, 1868) (status source)
Goniobasis thorntonii I. Lea, 1862 accepted as Elimia pybasii (I. Lea, 1862) (status source)
Goniobasis thortonii I. Lea, 1862 accepted as Elimia pybasii (I. Lea, 1862) (status source)
Goniobasis vanuxemii I. Lea, 1862 accepted as Elimia simplex (Say, 1825) (status source)
Goniobasis versa I. Lea, 1864 accepted as Elimia laeta (Jay, 1839) (status source)
Goniobasis viridostriatis I. Lea, 1864 accepted as Elimia boykiniana (I. Lea, 1840) (status source)
Goniobasis wheatleyi I. Lea, 1868 accepted as Elimia jonesi (Goodrich, 1936) (status source)
Goniobasis whitfieldensis I. Lea, 1868 accepted as Elimia lecontiana luteocella (I. Lea, 1868) (status source)
Helix balasteriana I. Lea, 1840 accepted as Dyakia janus (Beck, 1837) (status source)
Iheringella isocardiodes (I. Lea, 1856) (status source)
Iheringella isocardioides (I. Lea, 1858) accepted as Iheringella isocardiodes (I. Lea, 1856) (status source)
Io viridula I. Lea, 1862 accepted as Pleurocera prasinata (Conrad, 1834) (status source)
Lioplax cyclostomaformis (I. Lea, 1841) accepted as Lioplax cyclostomatiformis (I. Lea, 1844) (status source)
Lithasia showalterii I. Lea, 1860 accepted as Elimia showalterii (I. Lea, 1860) (status source)
Lithasia wheatleyi I. Lea, 1866 accepted as Elimia clara (J. G. Anthony, 1854) (status source)
Lymnaea traskii I. Lea, 1864 accepted as Limnophysa tryonii Tryon, 1865 (status source)
Lymnaea tryoniana I. Lea, 1866 accepted as Limnophysa tryonii Tryon, 1865 (status source)
Margaritana etowahensis I. Lea, 1858 accepted as Margaritana georgiana I. Lea, 1859 accepted as Lasmigona etowaensis (Conrad, 1849) (status source)
Margaritana georgiana I. Lea, 1859 accepted as Lasmigona etowaensis (Conrad, 1849) (status source)
Margaritana tombecbeensis I. Lea, 1858 accepted as Pseudodontoideus subvexus (Conrad, 1834) (status source)
Margaritana tombigbeensis "I. Lea, 1862" accepted as Margaritana tombecbeensis I. Lea, 1858 accepted as Pseudodontoideus subvexus (Conrad, 1834) (status source)
Margaron (Unio) demeraraensis I. Lea, 1870 accepted as Unio demararaensis I. Lea, 1859 accepted as Diplodon demararaensis (I. Lea, 1859) (status source)
Margaron dimotus I. Lea, 1870 accepted as Lens contradens (I. Lea, 1838) (status source)
Margaron lepidior I. Lea, 1870 accepted as Rhipidodonta charruana (d'Orbigny, 1835) (status source)
Margaron nashvilliensis "I. Lea, 1870" accepted as Unio nashvillianus I. Lea, 1834 accepted as Ligumia subrostrata (Say, 1831) accepted as Sagittunio subrostratus (Say, 1831) (status source)
Margaron schoolcraftii "I. Lea, 1870" accepted as Unio schoolcraftensis I. Lea, 1834 accepted as Rotundaria pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831) accepted as Cyclonaias pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831) (status source)
Melania arata I. Lea, 1843 accepted as Pleurocera canaliculata (Say, 1821) (status source)
Melania australis I. Lea, 1857 accepted as Melania duplex Brot, 1862 (status source)
Melania australis Reeve, 1859 accepted as Thiara australis (I. Lea & H. C. Lea, 1851) (status source)
Melania blanda I. Lea, 1861 accepted as Elimia laeta (Jay, 1839) (status source)
Melania catenaria I. Lea, 1840 accepted as Melania catenoides I. Lea, 1842 accepted as Elimia boykiniana (I. Lea, 1840) (status source)
Melania catenoides I. Lea, 1842 accepted as Elimia boykiniana (I. Lea, 1840) (status source)
Melania corrugata I. Lea, 1841 accepted as Elimia edgariana (I. Lea, 1841) (status source)
Melania cumingii I. Lea & H. C. Lea, 1851 (status source)
Melania curta Haldeman, 1841 accepted as Pleurocera picta (I. Lea, 1841) (status source)
Melania curta Menke, 1828 accepted as Elimia virginica (Gmelin, 1791) (status source)
Melania decussata Brot, 1862 accepted as Thiara australis (I. Lea & H. C. Lea, 1851) (status source)
Melania deshayesiana I. Lea, 1843 accepted as Elimia laqueata (Say, 1829) (status source)
Melania deshayesiana Reeve, 1860 accepted as Elimia laqueata (Say, 1829) (status source)
Melania dubia I. Lea, 1841 accepted as Melania dubiosa I. Lea, 1842 accepted as Elimia ebenum (I. Lea, 1841) (status source)
Melania dubiosa I. Lea, 1842 accepted as Elimia ebenum (I. Lea, 1841) (status source)
Melania duplex Brot, 1862 (status source)
Melania exarata I. Lea, 1841 accepted as Melania arata I. Lea, 1843 accepted as Pleurocera canaliculata (Say, 1821) (status source)
Melania hartmaniana I. Lea, 1861 accepted as Elimia hartmaniana (I. Lea, 1861) (status source)
Melania laevigata I. Lea, 1841 accepted as Elimia taitiana (I. Lea, 1841) (original description)
Melania laevis I. Lea, 1842 accepted as Elimia taitiana (I. Lea, 1841) (original description)
Melania leaii Brot, 1862 accepted as Elimia taitiana (I. Lea, 1841) (original description)
Melania menkeana "Brot, 1875" accepted as Brotia costula (Rafinesque, 1833) (status source)
Melania menkeana G. Nevill, 1885 accepted as Brotia costula (Rafinesque, 1833) (status source)
Melania menkiana I. Lea, 1843 accepted as Brotia costula (Rafinesque, 1833) (status source)
Melania meukiana I. Lea, 1843 accepted as Melania menkiana I. Lea, 1843 accepted as Brotia costula (Rafinesque, 1833) (status source)
Melania mutata Brot, 1862 accepted as Elimia laqueata (Say, 1829) (status source)
Melania nitens I. Lea, 1842 accepted as Elimia nitens (I. Lea, 1842) (status source)
 Homonymy

Possibly intended as a replacement name for the preoccupied Bulimus virgineus I. Lea. 1840, non Bruguière, 1789. ... [details]

 Homonymy

Interpreted as a substitute name for Goniobasis etowahensis I. Lea, 1862 to avoid secondary homonymy with Melania ... [details]

 Homonymy

Interpreted as a substitute name for Goniobasis etowahensis I. Lea, 1862 to avoid secondary homonymy with Melania ... [details]

 Homonymy

Melanopsis laevigata was placed in Melania by Lamarck (1822: 164)  [details]

 Homonymy

Lea (1861) introduced the name Melania propria twice in the same article for two different species. This is the ... [details]

 Homonymy

Treated by Brot (1862) as a secondary junior homonym of Melania cumingii I. Lea & H.C. Lea, 1851; M. renovata Brot, ... [details]

 Homonymy

Although not identically spelled, Lea's name is a homonym of d'Orbigny's name under ICZN (1999) Article 58.12 (use ... [details]

 Homonymy

Replacement for Paludina cyclostomaformis I. Lea, 1841, a homonym of Paludina cyclostomaeformis C. d'Orbigny, 1837 ... [details]

 Spelling

Lea (1842) corrected the spelling from U. cowperiana (honoring "J. H. Couper" instead of "J. H. Cowper" as given in ... [details]

 Spelling

Spelling changed to G. binneyana by I. Lea (1863), an incorrect subsequent spelling [details]

 Spelling

Spelling changed to G. lawrencei by I. Lea (1874), an incorrect subsequent spelling [details]

 Spelling

Spelling changed to Goniobasis ohioensis by I Lea (1863), an incorrect subsequent spelling [details]

 Spelling

Spelling changed by Lea (1866) to Goniobasis viridistriata, an incorrect subsequent spelling  [details]

 Spelling

Also spelled Helix balestieriana and H. balesteriana, incorrect subsequent spellings  [details]

 Spelling

Spelling changed to M. deshaysiana by Lea (1863), an incorrect subsequent spelling [details]

 Spelling

Spelling changed to Melania verreauxiana by Lea (1866), an incorrect subsequent spelling [details]

 Spelling

Lea (1866) modified the name to Trypanostoma currierianum, an incorrect subsequent spelling  [details]

 Spelling

Unio moestus is a frequent misspelling  [details]

 Spelling

Lea (1867) acted as First Reviser and fixed U. sordidus as the correct original spelling [details]

 Spelling

Lea (1867) acted as First Reviser and fixed U. sordidus as the correct original spelling [details]

 Synonymy

Considered a likely synonym of (I. Lea, 1852) by Goodrich (1940) and Burch (1982)  [details]

 Synonymy

Previously treated as a junior synonym of Elliptio lanceolata (I. Lea, 1928); considered a junior synonym of E. ... [details]

 Taxonomic remark

A replacement name for Lymnaea traskii I. Lea, 1864 (not of Tryon, 1863) [details]


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